Featured

Crypto News

According to Jesse Powell Kraken – exchange rate of the US cryptocurrency, bitcoin ratios constantly fill the US reserve pool to open long positions.

In an interview with Tech, the CEO told Youtuber Ivan that the number of traders who believe that the price of bitcoin is higher is higher than that of those who think otherwise. This exciting sentiment has led most traders to borrow money from Crack to develop long positions in the bitcoin market. Often, the absence of short sellers – those who believe that the price of bitcoin will go down, is enough for liquidity. As a result, the margin pool is exhausted.

Close effect
Cryptocurrency market traders provide traders with leverage 100 times greater than their underlying cash balance. This means, for example, that an investor can only invest 100 dollars in a single trading account with his trading account. If bitcoin moves in the direction provided by long traders, this will make a multiplier of their $ 100 position. Otherwise, he loses more than $ 100 from a dollar trading account. Overall, the upside improvement potential makes traders an attractive lever.

Powell points out that no operator is in favor of lowering Bitcoin prices, which means that most of them are paid. This feeling is an indicator that the market has a greater value for cryptocurrencies than today.

bitcoin price live

However, since leveraged transactions are mainly short-term, they can not determine the long-term bias of bitcoin. The answer to this question lies in the macroeconomy: it is the deficit in US dollars.

Travis Kling, founder and chief investment officer of cryptocomputant management company Ikigai, said in September that the global liquidity crisis was underway. A former Wall Street executive spoke about the Federal Reserve Reserve Rate Program, which allowed the US central bank to access hundreds of billions of dollars overnight. He added that investors have started to shed positions in bitcoins to get as much liquidity as possible.

Scranton’s Trolley History and the Electric City Trolley Museum

1. The Horse-Drawn Trolley:

Although development of the steam locomotive and the progressive laying of track enabled the distances between emerging cities to be covered in ever-decreasing time and augmented their growth by funneling families, workers, and materials during the mid-19th to early 20th century period, there was little intra-city transportation, except, of course, for the horse and various wagons and buggies it pulled. What was needed was some type of short-range, low-capacity vehicle, accommodating several dozen, with sprightly speed to cover distances of between a few blocks and a few miles. But, unlike the trains, coal proved sooty and unsuitable for such street negotiation.

Toward this end, albeit still employing horsepower, the Honorable A. B. Duning, David R. Randall, George Tracey, A. Bennett, and Samuel Raub were granted a charter on March 23, 1865 to establish the People’s Street Railway, which connected downtown Scranton with the surrounding Hyde Park area with hourly service in each direction.

The Scranton and Providence Passenger Railway Company, plying its own route as of March 27 of the following year, mimicked its operation, but was subsequently acquired by its former competitor and merged into a single company. Daily service, from Scranton to Providence, was provided every hour at a 10-cent fare, although Sunday operations were contingent upon demand created by those wishing to travel to church.

Despite the shortened travel times, schedules were hardly carved in stone. Indeed, the trolley cars were small, with two opposing benches, heat was nonexistent in winter, weather impacted operations, and designated stops were never established, leaving the “flag and board” method to determine the ride’s interruptions.

Reverse-direction travel required the unhitching of the mule, the human-powered push of the car after it had been secured on a turntable, and then the re-hitch, before a route-retracing to its origin.

Growth necessitated order. Drivers soon wore uniforms, heavily traveled lines required conductors for fare collecting and driver signaling, designated stops were established, and trolley fleets were expanded.

The method, however, was less than efficient, since horses tired and needed to be fed and polluted the streets after they were, and the ratio of mules to cars was something like seven or eight to one.

Adding to this conundrum was sickness. What could be considered the black plague for animals occurred in 1872 when the “Great Epizootic” spread from Canada to Louisiana, claiming the lives of some 2,300 horses in a three-week period in New York alone, severely impacting the Scranton streetcar system, which depended upon them.

2. The Electric Trolley:

Traveling to major US and European cities where electric-powered trolley operations had been experimentally, but unsuccessfully attempted, Edward B. Sturges, who believed that this source would replace the four-legged type, formed the Scranton Suburban Railway Company, contracting with the Van Depoele Electric Manufacturing Company of Chicago to construct the Green Ridge Suburban Line and concluding an agreement with the Pullman Car Company for its trolleys.

Because electric cars had never been designed, they closely mirrored those suited to horses, with four wheels and opposing and open platforms, although their plush bench seats, polished mahogany interior walls, blind-covered glass windows, and reflector oil lamps provided a decided degree of comfort.

Construction was the first step. Conversion was the second-in the Van Depoele factory for electric installation, requiring the enclosure of the front platform with doors to house the motor and control equipment. Gears and chains connected the motor shaft to the front axle and six incandescent light bulbs ran throughout the interior.

Electric power was drawn from an overhead contact wire.

System implementation required center street grading, power line connection, and power station construction, all of which began on July 6, 1886.

Like the nucleus of an atom, the innovative trolley company chose the intersection of Franklin and Lackawanna avenues as the origin of its route, since it served as Scranton’s transportation hub, with all horse-drawn lines converging there, and its proximity to long-range railroads, including the Delaware, Lackawanna, and Western, the Central Railroads of New York and New Jersey, and the Ontario and Western. Additionally, it was the heart of the city’s business and theater districts.

The two-and-a-half mile line terminated on Delaware Avenue, where a turntable facilitated the reverse-direction run.

After construction, which was completed on November 29, 1886, the trolley cars were delivered by the Delaware, Lackawanna, and Western Railroad, which transported them on flat cars, and then, in an homage to the power they were replacing, were pulled the final distance by horses on the rails that had been laid for their purpose, before being transferred to Franklin Avenue track.

Initiated by a hand control lever movement by Charles van Depoele, trolley car number four, the country’s first electrically-powered one, inched away at 14:30, local time, traveling in the direction of Franklin and Spruce streets and earning Scranton the title of “first electric city.”

In comparison to its horse-drawn counterparts, it smoothly accelerated, without animal-induced lurch, and its interior, for the first time, was lit by the same power source which propelled it.

Car number two soon partook of the inaugural operation after a nail, attracted by magnetic current, attached itself to the armature, rendering it unusable until repairs were made.

The full, 2.5-mile route was successfully covered the following day by car number four.

“After running through snow, ice, and slush, up steep grades and around 45-degree turns both left and right,” according to David W. Biles in his book, “From Horse Cars to Buses: A Look Back at Scranton’s City Transit History” (Electric City Trolley Museum Association, p. 21), “car number four reached the turntable in Green Ridge. After turning the car, a return trip was made to Franklin Avenue at Lackawanna Avenue. The operation over the entire line was considered a complete success.”

That success, needless to say, served as the catalyst to numerous other lines, including the Valley Passenger Railway Company, the Scranton Passenger Railway Company, the Nay-Aug Cross Town Railway Company, the Scranton and Carbondale Traction Company, the Scranton and Pittston Traction Company, and the Lackawanna Valley Traction Company.

Amalgamated and operated under the single Scranton Railway Company banner by 1900, they left no inch of track unelectrified, converting any used by its horse-drawn predecessors to this technology.

Because the proliferation of such track connected every area of the city, including many small coal patch towns, demand necessitated larger cars, resulting in the 1897-to-1904 order for 35 40-foot-long, dual-end control trolleys that could operate in either direction without requiring turntable re-orientation. They were crewed by both motormen and conductors.

The expansion of this transportation phenomenon can be gleaned by its statistics: operating over more than 100 miles of track with a 183-strong fleet, the Scranton Trolley Company carried 33 million passengers in 1917. A 1923-established subsidiary, the Scranton Bus Company, provided service on an extension to the Washburn Street trolley line.

Representing the pinnacle of trolley design, the ten cars ordered from the Osgood-Bradley Car Company of Wooster, Massachusetts, in 1929 featured leather seats and were dubbed “Electromobiles.”

Reorganized as the Scranton Transit Company in 1934 after the Insull empire of electric railways and power companies, which had taken it over nine years earlier, declared bankruptcy, the originally named Scranton Railway Company continued to operate, but the sun was already inching toward the western horizon for it.

Ridership had begun to decline and trackless buses, not requiring external power sources, increased in popularity. The progressive conversion of lines to bus routes left little more than 50 miles of track and a fleet of 100 cars by 1936. Twelve years later these figures had respectively diminished to 20 and 48.

History, as often occurs, comes full cycle. The way the electric trolley had replaced the horse-drawn one, so, too, had it been replaced by the gasoline engine. The Greenbridge Suburban Line, the first to see the then new-fangled service, became the last to relinquish it on December 18, 1954.

3. The Electric City Trolley Museum:

Located in downtown Scranton and sharing both the massive parking lot and, in some cases, track as Steamtown National Historic Site, the Electric City Trolley Museum offers the visitor an opportunity to interpret the city’s rich streetcar history and personally inspect many of its cars.

“A 50-seat theater,” according to the museum, “and other fascinating displays bring to life the history of the extensive network that allowed residents of Northeast Pennsylvania to travel 75 miles on trolleys.”

A good introduction to it is the ten-minute film, “Trolley: The Cars that Changed our Cities,” continually shown in the Transit Theater, which serves as a threshold to the museum’s exhibits. These include a sub-station model that demonstrates how electric power is supplied to trolley motors in order to run them and a boardable car, whose floor cut-away permits inspection of its 600-volt direct current traction motor.

Several cars have either been restored or are in the process of it.

Car number 46, for example, is a closed, double-end, double-truck type and was one of 22 built in 1907 by the St. Louis Car Company for the Philadelphia and Western Railway, which operated them between the 69th Street Terminal in Upper Darby and Strattford.

Run by four General Electric 73C motors and traveling on 34-inch-diameter rolled steel wheels, it had a 51.4-foot length, a 9.3-foot width, and weighed 82,000 pounds. Constructed primarily of wood, but employing a steel underbody frame, it is an example of the classic, 54-passenger interurban trolleys that were popular in the early-20th century.

Car 8534, another museum exhibit, was the last of the 535 steel, single-ended, single-direction types built by the J. G. Brill Company for the Philadelphia Rapid Transit Company. It can be considered an updated version of the 1,500 “Near-Side” cars constructed between 1911 and 1913. Both provided the majority of trolley service in Philadelphia after World War II.

The last such car, of which only three remain today, was withdrawn from service in 1957.

Another museum example is car number 801. One of five ordered by the LVT Company in February of 1912 for the opening of its new branch line from Whales Junction to Norristown in Pennsylvania, it was built by the Jewett Car Company of Newark, Ohio.

Its three-section interior, emulating the elegance of steam Pullman passenger cars of the era, consisted of a compartment for the motorman, baggage, and a brass spittoon-supplied, men-only smoking area; the main passenger seating section; and a toilet with an outside drinking fountain, complete with a cup dispenser, on the far right side.

The visitor’s trolley experience can be improved with a ten-mile round-trip ride on one, departing from the wood platform Steamtown Station, where his return-to-era is enhanced with views of the railroad yard’s numerous steam locomotives, passenger coaches, and freight cars of yore. The puff of smoke, the smell of soot, the ring of bells, the shrill of whistles, and the clack of tracks are all likely to occur.

Of the two operating trolley cars, both of which are painted maroon to reflect the color that Scranton’s first car wore when it inaugurated service back in 1886, number 76, which had operated in Philadelphia, was constructed in 1926 and remained in service for half a century.

Pole-connected to the power line above it, it ran on a 650-volt direct current motor. It was crewed by both a motorman and a conductor. A nickel fare permitted all-day travel. Entry was and is through a mid-car door.

Its pristinely restored interior features wicker seats, strap hangers, a brass, fare-registering box, and vintage advertisements, such as for Nabisco’s Uneeda biscuits. Air conditioning consisted of opening the windows in summer.

Departing Steamtown and reaching 30-mph speeds on some sections, the Electric City trolley follows the once 19-mile-long Laurel Line track, passing the Radisson Hotel, which had been the magnificent Lackawanna Railroad Station until 1970, the Dumore shaft coal mine entrance, and the Roaring Brook gorge area, sporting a small waterfall.

It next enters the Laurel Line Tunnel, constructed between 1904 and 1905, for the Lackawanna and Wyoming Railroad, a high-speed, third-rail electric line that had operated between Scranton and Wilkes-Barre. Stretching 4,747 feet in length, it offers a progressive incline, from 180 feet below ground at its entrance to 90 feet at its exit.

Boring through a two-mile wooded area and passing siding track, the trolley terminates its journey at the trolley restoration shop, where riders can view some of the 23 cars in its collection being serviced and repaired.

Periodic trips are also scheduled to PNC Field on Montage Mountain throughout the season.

Re-boarding the trolley, passengers retrace the route, returning to Steamtown Station, during which they may have experienced a return in time to a century-earlier transportation mode that was integral to Scranton’s development as a city.

Sources

Biles, David. W. “From Horse Cars to Buses: A Look Back at Scranton’s City Transit History”. Scranton: Electric City Trolley Museum Association.

Tips For Taking Pictures of Fall Foliage

Autumn may be one of the most beautiful seasons of the year.  Nature puts on a show of beautiful fall foliage for all the world to see.  Whether you travel around the block or across the US you will be met with an array of brilliant color.  Here are a few tips for taking pictures of fall foliage.

Schedule a A little Travel Time:

Many people schedule their vacation around autumn.  There couldn’t be a better time to take a bus tour.  This is also the best time of year for taking a long drive up the east coast.  From as far north as Canada and as far south as North Carolina, you’ll be met with brilliant fall foliage around late September through sometimes up to November.

Pick a destination that promises lots of trees on sloping hills and valleys.  One of my favorite places to drive around in is right where I live in West Virginia.  The rolling hills come to life in brilliant yellows, oranges, reds, purples and browns.

Take a short drive along any highway that cuts through the hills of WV and you will see a new picture perfect shot to take advantage of.  You’ll even find several scenic overlooks right along the highways. 

Pull your car over and grab that camera.  Don’t forget your tripod for the best shots. 

But don’t stop with West Virginia.  You’ll find opportunities for taking fall foliage pictures in these areas of the US:

  • South East – Maryland, North Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia and West Virgina, 
  • North East – Connecticut, Main, Massachusetts, New England, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, and Vermont 
  • Midwest – Ohio, Michigan and Wisconsin

Northern Illinois may not be among the most notorious for fall foliage but I can vouch that they have some pretty awesome opportunities for capturing an autumn picture or two as well.  I’ve even known California to decorate a park or two with artificial fall foliage.  They actually colored the leaves on the trees in a park to shoot a movie that was set in the fall. 

If you don’t have time to travel, try a little walk down your own local block.  If you live in an area that has four seasons, you are sure to find at least one tree with fall foliage to photograph.

Play With Angles When Taking Fall Foliage Pictures

If you’ve ever hugged a tree, you’ll love this idea.  When you find a tree with some exceptionally brilliant colors, stand at the base of its trunk.  Now look up.  Fall foliage pictures taken from this angle can be breathtaking.  It feels as if the tree is giving you a hug.

Another good angle to look for is from above.  Take pictures from a building or even from a hilltop looking over surrounding areas.  I used to love taking pictures from a hilltop in Blackwell Forest Preserve.  On top of that hill you could capture fall foliage pictures of tree tops from almost every direction. 

Taking fall foliage pictures at different angles gives you an opportunity to share your creative side.

Use Your Camera’s Landscape Mode

There is nothing more beautiful than to capture a hill full of trees dressed in a wide array of colors.  Many digital cameras come with preset modes.  A preset mode means the best settings have been programmed into your camera for taking pictures in specific settings. 

For instance, Landscape mode on your camera will capture a wider panorama of the landscape in front of you. 

Another trick is to use what is called a stitch mode.  Not every camera has this.  But if yours does, be sure and use it for taking in those extra wide views of autumn landscape. With this feature you can actually take two or three pictures moving left or right.  Then use your photo editing software to paste them together.  The result is an awesome panoramic fall foliage picture.

Use a Tripod for Maximum Control

It may take a little time to pull out that tripod but it is worth the extra effort.  Using a tripod will save the headache of later deleting blurry, out of focus pictures.  You can avoid the disappointment of losing the best shot of the day by taking this one simple step.

Tripods are easy to attach.  They can be purchased for as little as $20.00.  They don’t have to be big and cumbersome to work.  I even had a tripod that was flexible.  The legs could be bent around the branch of a tree.  It was made for smaller cameras.  So it had limited use.

You do want a tripod that is easy to set up and light to carry.  Remember you will be doing a bit of hiking to find the best photo opportunities.

Use Your Camera’s LCD Viewer to Check Your Scene For Unwanted Objects

Take a moment to view your potential fall foliage pictures for any unwanted objects that may appear.  You know the kind I’m talking about.  No one really cares to see that trash dumpster in the corner of your photograph.

A look through your LCD view gives you a clear image of what your actual photograph is going to look like.  And sometimes it is just a matter of moving a fraction to leave those unwanted objects out.  This extra step can save hours of photo editing later.

When Fall Foliage is Scarce

There may be times when there just don’t seem to be any bright colored leaves to take pictures of.  This is when it’s time to get a little creative.  Fall foliage may be hard to find.  If you start too early in the season, your walks in the park may only reveal a few colored leaves.

But even then you can get some beautiful pictures.  Let’s just say you come upon one lonely tree that has decided to show its colors.  That’s when it’s time to get up close.  Let that tree be the star of your photography for the day.  Single out branches and even leaves. 

Most important of all, have fun while taking pictures of fall foliage.  Appreciate Mother Nature’s show and you will be rewarded a hundred fold.

Why Gutter Guard Protection Is Important For A Safe Home

Cleaning your gutters once a year isn’t enough to protect them if you don’t have gutter guards. Leaves fall by the scores during the autumn season in the Eastern and Midwest climates. The leaves can fill your gutters in one day making it impossible for rain water to travel to the downspout out to the ground away from your home.

Since the water has nowhere to go, it runs down the side of your home causing leaks to your ceiling and walls and can lead to a cracked foundation costing the homeowner thousands of dollars in repairs that could have been avoided.

When snow hits, it puts tremendous weight on the gutters causing them to sag and pull away from the fascia board. The snow alone will destroy them without protection. Gutter protection will keep most of the debris and twigs out as well as the snow and ice.

There was an incident in Ohio where a single woman bought an older home that was remodeled and totally updated. She called a handyman to clean her gutters and she took his word for it because she didn’t want to climb the ladder to check his work and he knew she wouldn’t.

The gutters were fine but they weren’t protected so they were clogged up and the water from rain, melted ice and snow had nowhere to go. She had some damage to her ceiling and her basement was damp.

Her son came into town and checked her gutters and told her she need something to filter out the debris so the water would not damage her home. She called a specialist, they came out and inspected her gutters and told her about gutter protection. She had them do the work and her gutters didn’t give her any problem after that.

She was lucky with minimal damage and had her basement dried out and her ceiling fixed. She learned her lesson not to call a handyman to do a job that’s meant for the professionals. The specialist explained the difference in gutter guards and how they’re not all the same.

She had a top quality gutter guard system installed with a lifetime warranty including annual gutter cleaning. She learned that not all gutter systems are created equal and protection is important for a safe home. If she would have waited and ignored her gutter problem, she would probably be facing a few thousand dollars in home repair bills.

Aviation Sights of Connecticut

With the exception, perhaps, of Ohio, no other state is more synonymous with aviation than Connecticut. Inextricably tied to many of the world’s most renowned aircraft, powerplant, and propeller manufacturers, it is canvassed by the likes of Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation, Pratt and Whitney, Chance Vought, Avco Lycoming, Hamilton Standard, and the collective United Technologies. Many of their valuable contributions can be viewed by visiting its aviation sights.

National Helicopter Museum

Sandwiched between Avco Lycoming at one end of Stratford and Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation at the other, and located in the abandoned, 48-foot-long eastbound Metro North Railroad Station, the National Helicopter Museum traces the technological and historical development of rotary-wing aircraft.

Brainchild of Dr. Raymond E. Jankovich, a local pediatrician, and Robert McCloud, founder of The Stratford Bard newspaper, it was conceptualized in 1978 because of its helicopter-associated location and potential benefit to the city. Its realty was cemented with a grant from Avco Lycoming.

Billing itself as the only such museum devoted to rotary-wing airplanes and opening in 1983, it is entirely run by volunteers, most of whom are former Sikorsky employees, and offers a chronologically-displayed photo essay, models, and a few airframe sections which collectively trace helicopter design from nature, which aerial flight had traditionally attempted to emulate, to the 21st century.

The helicopter itself traces its origins to the Chinese flying tops recorded as early as the fourth century BC. Comprised of short, round sticks, they were affixed with “helicopter blade,” or airfoil-resembling, feathers. Rotated by either being rubbed back and forth or pulled by a string, they spun and their angled feathers generated lift, causing them to vertically ascend.

Leonardo da Vinci later made numerous sketches of wing-flapping gliders, parachutes, and air screws capable of lifting humans, the screws themselves made of linen in order to ride the air, about which he theorized, “when force generates swifter movement than the flight of the unresisting air, this air becomes compressed after the manner of feathers compressed and crushed by the weight of a sleeper. And the thing which drove the air, finding resistance in it, rebounds after the manner of a ball struck against a wall.”

The museum’s own “In the Beginning” display illustrates these early concepts. Man’s first rotary wing was the prehistoric boomerang, which led to the Chinese top and da Vinci’s Helix, the first recorded “helicopter” design.

Its “Early Dreams” drawings, from 1843, depict both round, fan-resembling and side-by-side rotors, while those generated by Sir George Cayley were flatter, forming a wing in flight.

The “Early Prophets” survey indicates that the first successful, powered ascent reached a 40-foot height during a 20-second flight.

A 60-rotor helicopter, designed by Gustave Whitehead in 1911, appears in the “Before Sikorsky” collection, while the “International Achievements” panel depicts the development period between 1930 and 1935.

Professor E. H. Henrich, as evidenced from the “German Ascendency” panel, formed a new company to pursue his dreams of designing a rotary-wing aircraft after serving as Focke-Wulfe’s Design Chief, and it made a 28-second flight on June 26, 1936.

A mural entitled “Birth of First Flight” and obtained from the Sikorsky factory displays a short timeline of his designs beginning with the VS-300-V1 of 1942.

Engine development can be gleaned from “The Gas Turbine Revolution.” The steam engine, for instance, had too much structural weight to support then-known vertical lift technology, but the lighter gasoline powerplant, appearing just after the turn-of-the-century, was ubiquitously used. The relatively light, yet powerful rotary engine had been employed during the 1920s for helicopter experimentation, its entire cylinder block rotating round a stationary crankshaft and thus producing significant, air flow-created cylinder cooling.

The “State of Art in Crafts” survey showcases the significant helicopter manufacturers, including Sikorsky, Bell, Hughes, Kaman, Piasecki, Boeing-Vertol, and Robinson, while a half-dozen display cases feature rotary-wing models.

Despite the museum’s small size and artifact dimension-limiting door, it nevertheless displays several actual helicopter components. The main rotor of an S-58, for instance-weighing 110 pounds and measuring 28 feet from its rotational center-is viewable close to a Sikorsky S-76 tail rotor blade assembly. Engines include an Avco Lycoming T800-APW-800 turbine and a T55-L-714, which powered such Boeing designs as the CH-47 Chinook, the Model 234, the MH-47E Chinook, and the Model 360. Also featured are an RAH-66 Sikorsky “shadow” Commanche fly-by-wire test mockup, and the cockpit section of a Sikorsky S-76 in utility/offshore oil configuration; the design has a 43.4-foot fuselage length, a 44-foot rotor diameter, and can achieve 155-knot forward airspeeds.

The museum provides a small, but valuable venue through which rotary-wing technology and history, often discounted in aviation studies, but here singularly responsible for Stratford’s very existence, can be explored.

New England Air Museum

Located in Windsor Locks next to Bradley International Airport, the New England Air Museum is the largest such aviation facility in the northeast, showcasing more than 80 aircraft and often focusing on Connecticut aeronautical achievements in some 75,000 square feet of indoor exhibition space, which is subdivided into three hangars. Its complete collection encompasses 125 airframes and 200 engines.

The Military Exhibit Hangar, for instance–focusing on pure-jet fighters–features such aircraft as the Republic 105B Thunderchief, the Republic P-47D Thunderbolt, the North American F-86F Sabre, the Grumman F-14B Tomcat, the Fairchild/Republic A-10A Thunderbolt II, and the North American F-100A Super Sabre.

Its earliest design, a Sikorsky S-16 biplane, hails from 1915. Featuring a 19.33-foot length and 26.25-foot wingspan, the fighter, with an 897-pound empty weight, rests on a quad-wheeled main gear and a tail wheel to facilitate soft field operations, and was the first with a propeller arc-synchronized machine gun. It attained 74-mph maximum speeds.

World War II-era fighters include the Grumman F6F-5 Hellcat and Connecticut’s own Vought F4U-4 Corsair, the latter proudly sporting its classic, inverted-gull wings and seemingly oversized prop. The museum’s example bears the name of one of the more famous Marine pilots who fought in the Pacific Theatre, “Pappy Boyington.”

World War II bombers are represented by the North American B-25H Mitchell, the high-wing, twin-engine, medium-range aircraft which had served on every front with the Air Force, the Navy, and several countries, including England, France, China, and the Soviet Union, in the roles of low- and medium-level bomber, anti-submarine patrol, and transport, as well as having flown the famous Doolittle Raid. The New England Air Museum’s example is the last surviving B-25H variant and the most heavily armed used by the allies, with a.75-mm nose cannon, eight forward-facing.50 caliber machine guns, and six.50 caliber dorsal-, waist-, and tail turret-mounted machine guns.

Several rotary-wing aircraft, including the Bell UH-1B Iroquois, the Kaman K-225, and the Kaman HH-43H, round out the collection.

The Harvey H. Lippincott Civil Aviation Hangar sparkles with some rare gems.

The Silas H. Brooks balloon basket, for example, is both the oldest-surviving basket and portion of a lighter-than-air craft in the world. Brooks, of Plymouth, Connecticut, had constructed and flown his hot air balloon over Hartford and New Haven, accommodated in a five-foot-long, 200-pound wicker basket made in about 1870. Today, it can be viewed in a glass case at the entrance to the hangar.

Another pioneer piece, a 1912 replica of a Curtiss Model D Pusher biplane constructed by Howard Bunce, is the museum’s oldest-surviving, heavier-than-air craft and one that had been born on Connecticut soil.

The result of his several Model D inspections, it first appeared on paper as his own sketches before being sublimated to individual, and then assembled, parts, powered by a nonstandard four-cylinder, air-cooled engine built by Nels J. Nelson of New Britain, Connecticut. Although it had risen only a few feet off the ground and then crashed at the Berlin Fair Ground because of insufficient power, it lent itself to a second replica in the form of cannibalized parts, and this example, discovered in a barn in 1962, had been reassembled for museum exhibit with a 30-hp Kemp I-4 engine.

Other pioneer designs include a Bleriot XI monoplane from 1909 and a Nixon Special from 1918.

Another portion of a lighter-than-air craft on display is a Goodyear ZNP-K control car from a 1942 K-28 non-rigid airship, and biplanes are represented by a 1930 Gee Bee Model A, a 1930 Laird LC-DW 300 Solution, and a 1933 Viking “Kitty Hawk” Model B-8.

Two historically significant, early-piston airliners are also viewable.

The first of these, the Lockheed 10A Electra, is a twin-engined, low-wing, ten-passenger, tail-wheeled design which was the manufacturer’s first all-metal airframe and provided the foundation for the larger L-14 and L-18 Lodestar. The museum’s example, bearing serial number 1052, had first been delivered to the US Navy in 1936 for use as a staff transport.

The second, an equally twin-engined, tail-wheeled aircraft, is the Douglas DC-3, the most massively produced, multiple-role, military and civilian design, which for the first time enabled operators to generate a profit solely with the transport of passengers and thus revolutionized the airline industry. Dubbed “one of the four most important weapons of World War II” by General Eisenhower, it still plies the skies more than three-quarters of a century after it first took to them.

The museum’s DC-3, with more than 53,400 airborne hours in its logbook, served in several capacities, initially in a military role as a C-47 transport and then a commercial one with Eastern Airlines, Purdue University, and a number of smaller carriers.

Center- and showpiece of the Civil Aviation Hangar, however, is both the largest airframe in it and the only surviving example of the Connecticut-designed and -constructed Sikorsky VS-44A Excambrian. One of three completed in 1942 for American Export Airlines’ nonstop transatlantic routes, the high-wing, quad-engined, long-range, flying boat-hulled airliner, with a 79.25-foot length, 124-foot wingspan, and 57,500-pound gross weight, was procured for war operations, transporting priority passengers and cargo under Army and Navy contracts before serving with several charter airlines. Extensive damage resulted in its 1968 service withdrawal.

Barged from the Gulf of Mexico to Bridgeport, it was subjected to an extensive restoration by the team of Sikorsky employees who had been instrumental in its original construction.

Today, the aircraft, draped in its original American Export Airlines livery, bristles with a first factory rollout look.

Another, and virtually only, centerpiece-in this case, in the 58th Bomb Wing Memorial Hangar-is the Boeing B-29 Superfortress, the hangar itself named after the wing which had been instrumental in World War II Japanese defeat. The silver, sleek, 135,000-pound, quad-engined, 3,250-mile bomber stretches 99 feet in length and sports a 141.25-foot wingspan, and carries 11 crew members. Dropping the atom bomb over Japan, it closed the final curtain on the Pacific Theatre.

Poised outside, as if awaiting passengers, is a Sud-Aviation SE.210 Caravelle, the world’s first short-range, pure-jet airliner. Featuring the nose section originally designed for the de Havilland Comet; modestly-swept, low wings; triangular-shaped passenger windows; two aft-mounted, Rolls Royce Avon engines; and a cross-of-Loraine tail, the sleek aircraft served as the basis of most subsequent twin-jet configurations, such as the British Aircraft Corporation BAC-111, the McDonnell-Douglas DC-9, and the Fokker F.28 Fellowship. Two hundred eighty Caravelles of all versions had been built.

Operated by United Airlines, Sterling Airways of Denmark, and small package carrier Airborne Express, it found its way to the museum after the latter carrier had donated it.

Aside from the aircraft, the New England Air Museum features several themed exhibits, some of which showcase Connecticut’s aviation contributions, including “History of Sikorsky Aircraft,” “Lafayette Escadrille,” “AVG Flying Tigers,” “Tuskegree Airmen,” and “History of Pratt and Whitney.” There is also an Aviation Pioneer’s Theater.

Open-cockpit days, computer flight simulators, audio tours, speakers, special events, workshops, educational programs, an aviation research library, and a sizable Wings ‘n’ Things gift shop round out its offerings.

Sikorsky Memorial Airport

Tracing its origins to the grass-covered Avon Field racetrack, which had been conducive to early aircraft experimentation and had hosted the country’s first air show in 1911, Sikorsky Memorial Airport, a publicly-owned facility in Stratford, later became known as “Mollison Field” after the 1933 crash-landing there by Captain Jim Mollison during his transatlantic attempt.

Despite its location, it had been redesignated “Bridgeport Municipal Airport” four years later when the city of Bridgeport itself had purchased it.

Because of Connecticut’s prevalence of aircraft and engine manufacturers, it had been considered part of the “Arsenal of Democracy” during World War II, and was subsequently renamed “Igor I. Sikorsky Memorial Airport” in 1972 in honor of the man who had transformed the city into the birthplace of the helicopter and whose factory had been largely responsible for its expansion.

Today, its facilities include a passenger terminal with airline check-in counters, three gates, a restaurant, and car rental desks; a general aviation terminal; private hangars; and two runways–4,677-foot Runway 6/24 and 4,761-foot Runway 11/29. There is also a 40- by 40-foot helipad.

Progressive service discontinuation by three regional carriers, including Continental Connection in 1994, Delta Connection in 1997, and US Airways Express in 1999, had occurred because existing runway lengths prohibited larger, more profitable aircraft operations, although scheduled, commercial, rotary-wing service had been reinstated after a seven-year interval by US Helicopter with its return-to-roots helicopter operations to New York’s Downtown Heliport. Wiggins Airways provides FedEx Feeder cargo and small package service to the field.

During the 12-month period ending on February 28, 2007, Sikorsky Memorial Airport recorded 77,617 aircraft operations and had 241-based aircraft, of which 72 percent were single- engine, 11 percent were multi-engine, 15 percent were turbine, and two percent were rotary wing.

Conclusion

Connecticut’s rich rotary- and fixed-wing aircraft, engine, and propeller contributions to aviation, whose seeds were planted by some of the most famous names, merit a tribute-paying visit to its many related sights.

Living History in Bedford, Pennsylvania

Bedford, a pocket of preserved past, offers the visitor a living history experience, enabling him to walk the paths his forefathers forged, inspect several important houses and forts, and even stay in the very resort which sparked its rise.

Covered with a quit of rolling hills, meadows, and forests, the former frontier called for a soul to exert its intrinsic properties of creation on it, as evidenced by the forts which had risen from Harris Ferry along the Susquehanna River in the east to Logstown on the Ohio River in the west during the French and Indian War of 1754 to 1763. Marking the westward expansion of the British like a series of GPS waypoints, they carried names such as Lyttleton, Loudon, Frederick, Raystown/Bedford, Cumberland, Ligonier, Necessity, and Pitt/Duquesne. The two with the dual designations, however, were to be the most instrumental in the area’s development.

Where transportation paths meet, settlements usually rise, as did the town of Bedford in the form of a fort erected by the British during its 1758 campaign against the French along Forbes Road, which had previously been a cohesive collection of Indian trails. They would later evolve into the first trans-Pennsylvania toll rode artery, facilitating horse and wagon transport.

Constructed by Colonel Henry Boquet, General John Forbes’ deputy, the irregularly shaped fortification, covering 7,000 square yards, sported five bastions. A four- to five-foot deep by three-foot-wide, V-shaped ditch encircling its perimeter supported 18-foot-long, side-by-side laid logs, cut from the surrounding oak forests and hewn flat and snugly interlocked before being inserted, while a loopholed gallery extended from the central bastion on its north front down to the water’s edge. Swivel guns guarded its corners.
Entry was provided by three gates-a main one on its south side parallel to today’s Pitt Street; a second, smaller, west-facing one; and a northward-opening postern one.

Perched on a bluff overlooking the river gap, the initially-designated Fort Raystown served as a staging post for 6,790 westward-advancing troops subjected to attacks during their crossing of the imposing Allegheny Mountains, but replenished with necessary supplies before they continued toward Fort Pitt/Duquesne, stronghold of the French.

The British strategy proved successful: their opponents were defeated, effectively removing the barrier to English-speaking control of the Ohio Valley and, ultimately, America.

Redesignated “Fort Bedford” at the end of 1758 after the Fourth Duke of Bedford, England, the bastion served the secondary purpose of providing a sense of safety against Indian attacks, its security fostering settlement of people in search of agricultural valleys and timber-abundant mountains. It thus provided the seed from which the namesaked village eventually grew, becoming the first county seat west of the Tuscarora Mountains and, for a time, all of Western Pennsylvania, strategically located on the intra-state roadway.

Laid out in 1766, it was incorporated 29 years later, on March 13.

County development, paralleling that of the town, was spurred by the discovery of coal on Broad Top Mountain, giving rise to the rails needed to transport it to the area’s budding iron foundries and sparking a 100-percent population increase between 1870 and 1890 alone. Track networks, facilitating iron, timber, and passenger conveyance, were later supplemented, and finally succeeded by, the Lincoln Highway (Route 30), which connects Bedford with Pittsburgh, and the Pennsylvania Turnpike.

A short, in-town walking tour of Bedford itself enables the visitor to step back into its history in several important buildings.

The National Museum of the American Coverlet, for instance, is housed in the Common School, itself constructed in 1859 at a $7,000 cost and opened with an initial, 211-student enrollment the following year. Functioning as a school until it was sold to private interests in 1999, it incorporates a significant portion of its original structure, including its middle section, ventilation system, and surrounding iron fence.

The Bedford County Court House, built by Solomon Filler between 1828 and 1829 at a $7,500 cost, equally exudes originality, particularly in its tower-installed clock, which had to be hand-wound after a vigorous climb until it was electrified in 1975, and its two internal, self-supporting, circular staircases which lead to the second floor, portrait-lined courtroom. The pair of columns characterizing its façade, later donated by Filler himself, represents God on the left and justice on the right.

The Man on the Monument, located at the intersection of Juliana and Penn streets, was erected in 1890 to honor the soldiers who sacrificed their lives during the Civil War, incorporating the more than 20,000 pennies school children had collected for it. It was moved to its present location in 1957.

Behind it is the site of the city’s first courthouse and jail, constructed of blue limestone between 1774 and 1775.

One of the most significant structures-so much so, in fact, that it was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1984-is the Espy House. Owned by Colonel and Mrs. David Espy, it served as George Washington’s headquarters during the 1794 Whisky Rebellion, in which Western Pennsylvania farmers protested the excise tax imposed on the alcohol by Secretary of Treasury Hamilton. Thwarted by Washington’s 13,000-strong Federal Army, which had claimed the surrounding expanses for its own overnight accommodation, it marked the first and only time that a US president had commanded an army in the field.

Dispersing into the hills by October, the rebels demonstrated defeat.

The National House, opening its doors to weary travelers as a hotel for almost its entire existence, was strategically located on Forbes Road, which is now designated “Pitt Street.”

Built, like the Court House, by Solomon Filler, the Anderson House stands on land acquired from state-namesaked William Penn and was used as a medical office at its front and the Allegheny Bank of Pennsylvania at its back. It served as the only such public depository between Pittsburgh and Chandersburg.

Fort Bedford Museum:

The original fort’s importance was short-lived and the site of only one historically significant event: attempting to release the prisoners held there, James Smith and his Black Boys captured it on September 17, 1769, but after the French and Indian War, its garrison had already been reduced to a paltry 12, and by 1775, when the frontier had moved to Pittsburgh, it quickly spiraled into a state of disrepair.

In order to celebrate Bedford’s bicentennial, a blockade-style structure, formed by logs and chinking, rose from the site of the original fort 200 years after it had been built, in 1958, still perched on a bluff overlooking the Raystown Branch of the Juniata River. A section of its north wall was added in 2006, adjacent to what is now the Fort Bedford Museum.

Subdivided into a main gallery, a transportation room, a rear gallery, a mezzanine, and a gift shop, the blockhouse building internally exudes Western Pennsylvania’s New Frontier atmosphere, displaying some of the 2,000 artifacts in its collection, inclusive of Native American implements, civilian and military objects, household items, flintlock riffles, antique hand tools, 19th-century women’s clothing, a Civil War cannon, a Conestoga wagon, a stoneware crock, documents signed by the Penn family, and a Bedford Springs Resort ledger displaying President Buchanan’s signature.

Its focal point is a large-scale model of the original fort depicting Forbes Road, the Juniata River, and its surrounding area. But, perhaps the rarest piece in the collection is an original, 1758 flag. A gift to British forces at still-designated Fort Raystown from England’s Fourth Duke of Bedford, the hand-sewn, red silk satin damask flag, sporting a 23- by 24-inch union jack canton on its upper, left corner, prompted the fort’s renaming to Bedford at the end of 1758 in his honor. Although no evidence exists as to whether this was its official one, that had hung in the Officer’s Quarters and was only displayed during special occasions.
Nevertheless, patriots from a British officer seized it when freedom from English rule, expressed as the Declaration of Independence, traveled by word of mouth to Bedford.

The museum’s example is the only known British Red Fly to have survived from the French and Indian War.

Old Bedford Village:

The Fort Bedford Museum offers only a single taste of the town’s past. But the more than 40 original and reproduced log, frame, and stone structures comprising Old Bedford Village enable the visitor to step into the shoes of citizens past and walk their paths, interpreting the early pocket of Pennsylvania life preserved here.

A drive through the Claycomb Covered Bridge and a brief pass through the Welcome Center returns him to Pennsylvania’s dawn as a colony, where horse-clomping carriages are pulled over gravel paths, plumes of smoke spiral from log cabin chimneys, people wear period dress, and the sounds of striking metal reverberate from the blacksmith shop.

The village offers several examples of era dwellings. The Biddle House, for instance, is a two-story log structure originally built a few miles away in Dutch Corner, and is one of the earliest within the complex. Its V-shaped, double fireplace provided both heat and a method for cooking.

A hybrid of dwellings, the Kegg-Blasko House next door incorporates the remnants of a structure built by Thomas Kinton in 1768 and James Heydon in 1790, both located in Bedford County.

An 1802 deed identifies the village’s Semanek House as “the log mansion,” which originally stood in the village of Ryot in West St. Clair Township. It employed now almost-extinct chestnut in its construction.

The Williams Cabin is typical of the shacks most first-generation settlers lived in until time and establishment enabled them to construct more substantial ones, while the contrastive Anderson Victorian House, assembled from Anandale Hotel lumber, evokes its namesaked Victorian period.

Two schools are represented: the Kniseley School, of standard configuration, was constructed near Pleasantville in 1869 and used until the 1930s, while the appropriately-named 8 Square School, an octagonal building created in 1851 by Nat Hoover in East St. Clair Township, tended to be frequented by children of wealthier families.

There are numerous shops and services where costumed citizens still practice original methods. The Ice Cream Parlor features 17th-century cottage style construction and Feather’s Bakery, believed to have been built by William Nichols in 1808, still produces purchasable baked goods in its ovens as the “Old Bedford Village Bakery,” as evidenced by the aromas escaping from its opened door. Light lunches can equally be enjoyed in the dark, wooden-booth-provisioned interior of the Pendergrass Tavern, whose original counterpart had been located just outside the walls of Fort Bedford in the 1750s.

Other life necessities from the period were obtainable from the Chandler (candles), Furry’s Basket Shop, the Cooper Shop (barrels and casks), the General Store and Post Office, the Old Bedford Village Press, Bedford County Rifles, the Carriage Shop, Fisher’s Pottery, the Whitesmith (tin), and the Broom Shop.
Human power propelled all of the village’s machinery, as indicated by the foot-pedaled laith and bicycle-resembling jigsaw in Hemings Furniture and Wood Shop, and in Antonson Blacksmithing, where the tools necessary for many other period crafts took shape, including the very shoes needed to run the day’s engine-the horse.

The village also took care of man’s improper, earthly behavior in the jail, which represents the type used prior to 1800 in a county seat, and ensured that his Heavenly soul would not go ashtray in the Christ Church, a replica of the 1806 Union Church which is made of logs and still stands west of Schellsburg.

Educational programs, employing the village’s rich resources and entailing craft making, teach, depict, and demonstrate 18th- and 19th-century Pennsylvania life by means of quilting, candle dipping, coopering, blacksmithing, basket making, spinning, wheat weaving, leather working, tin smithing, broom making, Maize Pappouse doll making, and buggy riding in a series of classes, lectures, and tours. Village-made arts and crafts are purchasable in the Welcome Center’s gift shop.

Seasons and holidays mark special events, such as colonial crafts exhibits; festivals with historical customs, costumes, and cuisine; gunfights with muzzle loading; Civil and French and Indian War reenactments; Old West weekends; murder mystery evenings; pumpkinfests; and Old Fashioned Christmases, which see the village aglow with candle lanterns.

Bedford Springs Resort:

Bedford’s many important houses and forts enable the visitor to glimpse its history, but the Bedford Springs Resort enables him to live it.

Although the original Bedford Fort and Broad Top Mountain-discovered coal had attracted people to the area, there had been one other important draw: mineral springs.

As far back as 1796, Dr. John Anderson discovered what Native Americans had long known-namely, that drinking and bathing in the water from the area’s seven chalybeat, limestone, sulfur, and sweat springs produced both restorative and curative results. Incorporating these otherwise cost-free remedies in his own medical practice, he elected to purchase the 2,200 acres surrounding them and construct his own home on them. But his privacy in this idyllic spot was short-lived.

Traveling to Cumberland, Maryland, and then making the final 21-mile trek to Bedford by horse and wagon, a growing number of visitors was drawn to the area in search of the springs’ curative powers, and Dr. Anderson initially accommodated them in impromptu tents, preparing customized prescriptions based upon individual health requirements. Bathing facilities took form in 1802.

But the unquenchable thirst quickly demanded replacement of the temporary tents with more permanent-and area-indicative-accommodations–in the form of the Stone Inn four years later, whose very building blocks, like the waters, were freely provided by the springs-adjacent mountain and oxen-hauled down its sides. Permanent in location, it was only temporary in fulfilling its purpose, as the number of guests exerting demand for it quickly exceeded its capacity.

According to a travelogue written by Joshua Galpin in 1809, when the Stone House had already been joined by Crackford and a precursor to Evitt House, the facilities included a “large frame lodging house and several smaller ones for families-warm and cold baths and a billiard room.”

The Swiss building and others quickly rose from the once edificeless expanse.

Increasingly known for its comfortable accommodations, cuisine, and activities emphasizing its natural surroundings, it consistently attracted guests from industrializing eastern seaboard cities, as well as a growing list of wealthy, prominent dignitaries. Future US President and Pennsylvania native James Buchanan, for instance, first visited Bedford Springs in 1821 and would eventually spend 40 summers there, dubbing it his “Summer White House.” In 1848, James K. Polk became one of ten sitting presidents to stay there, followed by Taylor, Taft, Polk, Harding, and Eisenhower, among others, along with nine Supreme Court justices and countless celebrities. Buchanan himself received the first transatlantic cable, sent by England’s Queen Victoria, at the resort ten years later.

Travel to Bedford was greatly eased in 1872 when rail access connected the growing area with powerhouses such as Philadelphia, Washington, and New York for the first time.

Developing into one of America’s grand resorts during the end of the 19th century, it appropriately reflected the period’s golden age with spring houses, bridges, gates, and trails, and the transatlantic cable was to serve as only the first of many resort-associated innovations: it introduced one of the country’s first golf courses, designed by Spencer Oldham, in 1895, for example, and it was followed a decade later by the first indoor, mineral spring-fed pool, complete with a solarium and hydrotherapy rooms.

Although medical advances tipped the scales away from the Bedford Spring’s original purpose, its reputation as a luxurious resort serving a prestigious clientele was firmly entrenched in the area which had created it-so much so, in fact, that a central colonnade now connected the main dining room with a columned pavilion at Magnesia Springs across Schober’s Run.

Its role, still maintaining a luxurious touch, shifted between 1941 and 1943 when the US Navy, occupying the resort, trained some 7,000 sailors in radio operations, and it then served as a detention center for almost 200 Japanese diplomats captured in Germany during World War II until they were exchanged for American prisoners-of-war held in Asia.

Modern influences were again exerted in the 1950s with the installation of environmental control and sprinkler systems.

Inevitably, popularity wrestled with purpose. Travel trends shifted and, despite having been designated a National Historic Landmark in 1984, it continued to decline until it was closed two years later. A subsequent flood wreaked havoc on its 200-year-old wooden walls.

But Bedford Springs Partners, still detecting its glimmer of glory, purchased the once grand dame of properties for $8 million, subjecting it to a massive, $120 million restoration to resurrect and return it to its 1905 golden age guise and reopening its doors on July 12, 2007 after an eighth mineral spring had intermittently been discovered. After a secondary acquisition two years later, it was renamed the “Omni Bedford Springs Resort and Spa.””

Its self-proclaimed mission is to “open history’s door.”

Located in the Allegheny Mountain region of south-central Pennsylvania, and overlooking Cumberland Valley, the Bedford Springs Resort is accessed by driving down a small, return-to-history hill to a sanctuary preserved in time, and then passing the white, porch-lined façade of a sprawling mansion. Negotiating manicured lawns and formal gardens amid the audible trickles of streams and springs, the visitor enters the circular driveway, which approaches the dual-story, brick, ante-bellum Colonnade. Aside from being a National Historic Landmark, the resort is both a Triple-A four-diamond property and ranks as one of the Historic Hotels of America.

Serving as the core of connectivity to the mixture of adjoining building styles, the Colonnade itself houses the guest reception adorned with an original, 39-star American flag; the lobby; the location of the daily, complementary afternoon tea service; and the staircase leading to the ballroom. One of its wings leads to the Stone Inn with its Frontier Tavern and 1796 Room restaurants, while the other leads past the Crystal Room Restaurant, through the library, past the Che Sara Sara snack stand, the indoor pool, and the shop-lined corridor to the spa.

The resort’s 216 rooms and four suites, located in either the Historic or new Spa Wing, are seeped in history and tradition, yet offer modern luxury, with authentic patterns and textures, marble floors and vanities in their bathrooms, Egyptian linens, and authentic, bygone-era reminiscent walking sticks.

There are several restaurants.

The Crystal Room, for example, had formerly served as the Music Room and had also been used as the Ladies’ Parlor. Renovated in 1905 during the resort’s grand campaign, it replaced the considerably sized facility upstairs, which then became the Colonnade Ballroom. Now featuring a screen of classic Doric columns on either side, it sports original, name-reflective crystal chandeliers; gilt-framed mirrors; Victorian, round-back chairs; four hues of blue; a rotisserie; an exhibition kitchen; a 1,500-bottle wine cellar; and a collection of guest photographs taken between 1892 and 1898. It opens on to the private Daniel Webster Room.

The Frontier Tavern, located in the hotel’s Stone Inn section, had been a stagecoach stop from which the Bedford Spring’s earliest guests had been wagon-transported to the original tavern three miles away for dinner. Adorned with period artifacts, such as a bear trap, tools, a wood stove, and colorful crockery, it also sports a bar and billiard table.

The 1796 Room, also located in the Stone Inn section, reflects the very year that Dr. John Anderson first purchased the Bedford Springs property and exudes this 18th-century atmosphere with a steaks-and-chops, American colonial menu, which also includes choices such as bison, venison, rabbit, wild boar, quail, game pie, and mountain trout.

The mineral spring-fed indoor pool, returned to its 1905 appearance, sports the orchestra pit from which guests had been entertained more than a century ago.

The 30,000-square-foot Springs Eternal Spa includes wet and dry treatment rooms, aromatherapy, massages, facials, a garden, and a boutique, with actual mineral springs water used in all treatments.

The conference center is two-thirds its size, at 20,000 square feet.

The 18-hole, “Old Course”-designated golf course, reflecting the 1923, Donald Ross-designed rendition, is the third such creation after that of Spencer Oldham in 1895 and the intermittent, nine-hole, A. W. Tillinghast version of 1912.

Aside from golfing, the Bedford Springs Resort offers a considerable array of activities, including indoor and outdoor swimming, hiking and bicycling on 25 miles of trails, fishing in a gold-medal trout stream, kayaking, river rafting, and cross-country skiing, and hosts a wide range of functions, from reunions to horse-and-carriage weddings.

Aviation Sights of Connecticut

With the exception, perhaps, of Ohio, no other state is more synonymous with aviation than Connecticut. Inextricably tied to many of the world's most renowned aircraft, powerplant, and propeller manufacturers, it is canvassed by the likes of Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation, Pratt and Whitney, Chance Vought, Avco Lycoming, Hamilton Standard, and the collective United Technologies. Many of their valuable contributions can be viewed by visiting its aviation sights.

National Helicopter Museum

Sandwiched between Avco Lycoming at one end of Stratford and Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation at the other, and located in the abandoned, 48-foot-long eastbound Metro North Railroad Station, the National Helicopter Museum traces the technological and historical development of rotary-wing aircraft.

Brainchild of Dr. Raymond E. Jankovich, a local pediatrician, and Robert McCloud, founder of the Stratford Bard newspaper, it was conceptualized in 1978 because of its helicopter-associated location and potential benefit to the city. Its realty was cemented with a grant from Avco Lycoming.

Billing itself as the only such museum devoted to rotary-wing airplanes and opening in 1983, it is entirely run by volunteers, most of whom are former Sikorsky employees, and offers a chronologically-displayed photo essay, models, and a few airframe sections which collectively trace helicopter design from nature, which aerial flight had traditionally attempted to emulate, to the 21st century.

The helicopter itself traces its origins to the Chinese flying tops recorded as early as the fourth century BC. Comprised of short, round sticks, they were affixed with "helicopter blade," or airfoil-resembling, feathers. Rotated by either being rubbed back and forth or pulled by a string, they spun and their angled feathers generated lift, causing them to vertically ascend.

Leonardo da Vinci later made numerous sketches of wing-flapping gliders, parachutes, and air screws capable of lifting humans, the screws themselves made of linen in order to ride the air, about which he theorized, "when force generates swifter movement than the flight of the unresisting air, this air becomes compressed after the manner of feathers compressed and crushed by the weight of a sleeper. And the thing which drove the air, finding resistance in it, rebounds after the manner of a ball struck against a wall. "

The museum's own "In the Beginning" display illustrates these early concepts. Man's first rotary wing was the prehistoric boomerang, which led to the Chinese top and da Vinci's Helix, the first recorded "helicopter" design.

Its "Early Dreams" drawings, from 1843, depict both round, fan-resembling and side-by-side rotors, while those generated by Sir George Cayley were flatter, forming a wing in flight.

The "Early Prophets" survey indicates that the first successful, powered ascent reached a 40-foot height during a 20-second flight.

A 60-rotor helicopter, designed by Gustave Whitehead in 1911, appears in the "Before Sikorsky" collection, while the "International Achievements" panel depicts the development period between 1930 and 1935.

Professor EH Henrich, as evidenced from the "German Ascendency" panel, formed a new company to pursue his dreams of designing a rotary-wing aircraft after serving as Focke-Wulfe's Design Chief, and it made a 28-second flight on June 26, 1936.

A mural entitled to "Birth of First Flight" and obtained from the Sikorsky factory displays a short timeline of his designs beginning with the VS-300-V1 of 1942.

Engine development can be gleaned from "The Gas Turbine Revolution." The steam engine, for instance, had too much structural weight to support then-known vertical lift technology, but the lighter gasoline powerplant, appearing just after the turn-of-the-century, was ubiquitously used. The relatively light, yet powerful rotary engine had been employed during the 1920s for helicopter experimentation, its entire cylinder block rotating round a stationary crankshaft and thus producing significant, air flow-created cylinder cooling.

The "State of Art in Crafts" survey showcases the significant helicopter manufacturers, including Sikorsky, Bell, Hughes, Kaman, Piasecki, Boeing-Vertol, and Robinson, while a half-dozen display cases feature rotary-wing models.

Despite the museum's small size and artifact dimension-limiting door, it nevertheless displays several actual helicopter components. The main rotor of an S-58, for instance-weighing 110 pounds and measuring 28 feet from its rotational center-is viewable close to a Sikorsky S-76 tail rotor blade assembly. Engines include an Avco Lycoming T800-APW-800 turbine and a T55-L-714, which powered such Boeing designs as the CH-47 Chinook, the Model 234, the MH-47E Chinook, and the Model 360. Also featured are an RAH-66 Sikorsky "shadow" Commanche fly-by-wire test mockup, and the cockpit section of a Sikorsky S-76 in utility / offshore oil configuration; the design has a 43.4-foot fuselage length, a 44-foot rotor diameter, and can achieve 155-knot forward airspeeds.

The museum provides a small, but valuable venue through which rotary-wing technology and history, often discounted in aviation studies, but here singularly responsible for Stratford's very existence, can be explored.

New England Air Museum

Located in Windsor Locks next to Bradley International Airport, the New England Air Museum is the largest such aviation facility in the northeast, showcasing more than 80 aircraft and often focusing on Connecticut aeronautical achievements in some 75,000 square feet of indoor exhibition space, which is subdivided into three hangars. Its complete collection encompasses 125 airframes and 200 engines.

The Military Exhibit Hangar, for instance – focusing on pure-jet fighters – features such aircraft as the Republic 105B Thunderchief, the Republic P-47D Thunderbolt, the North American F-86F Saber, the Grumman F-14B Tomcat, the Fairchild / Republic A-10A Thunderbolt II, and the North American F-100A Super Saber.

Its earliest design, a Sikorsky S-16 biplane, hails from 1915. Featuring a 19.33-foot length and 26.25-foot wingspan, the fighter, with an 897-pound empty weight, rests on a quad-wheeled main gear and a tail wheel to facilitate soft field operations, and was the first with a propeller arc-synchronized machine gun. It attained 74-mph maximum speeds.

World War II-era fighters include the Grumman F6F-5 Hellcat and Connecticut's own Vought F4U-4 Corsair, the latter proudly sporting its classic, inverted-gull wings and seemingly oversized prop. The museum's example bears the name of one of the more famous Marine pilots who fought in the Pacific Theater, "Pappy Boyington."

World War II bombers are represented by the North American B-25H Mitchell, the high-wing, twin-engine, medium-range aircraft which had served on every front with the Air Force, the Navy, and several countries, including England, France , China, and the Soviet Union, in the roles of low- and medium-level bomber, anti-submarine patrol, and transport, as well as having flown the famous Doolittle Raid. The New England Air Museum's example is the last surviving B-25H variant and the most heavily armed used by the allies, with a.75-mm nose cannon, eight forward-facing.50 caliber machine guns, and six.50 caliber dorsal- , waist-, and tail turret-mounted machine guns.

Several rotary-wing aircraft, including the Bell UH-1B Iroquois, the Kaman K-225, and the Kaman HH-43H, round out the collection.

The Harvey H. Lippincott Civil Aviation Hangar sparkles with some rare gems.

The Silas H. Brooks balloon basket, for example, is both the oldest-surviving basket and portion of a lighter-than-air craft in the world. Brooks, of Plymouth, Connecticut, had constructed and flown his hot air balloon over Hartford and New Haven, accommodated in a five-foot-long, 200-pound wicker basket made in about 1870. Today, it can be viewed in a glass case at the entrance to the hangar.

Another pioneer piece, a 1912 replica of a Curtiss Model D Pusher biplane constructed by Howard Bunce, is the museum's oldest-surviving, heavier-than-air craft and one that had been born on Connecticut soil.

The result of his several Model D inspections, it first appeared on paper as his own sketches before being sublimated to individual, and then assembled, parts, powered by a nonstandard four-cylinder, air-cooled engine built by Nels J. Nelson of New Britain, Connecticut. Although it had risen only a few feet off the ground and then crashed at the Berlin Fair Ground because of insufficient power, it lent itself to a second replica in the form of cannibalized parts, and this example, discovered in a barn in 1962, had been reassembled for museum exhibit with a 30-hp Kemp I-4 engine.

Other pioneer designs include a Bleriot XI monoplane from 1909 and a Nixon Special from 1918.

Another portion of a lighter-than-air craft on display is a Goodyear ZNP-K control car from a 1942 K-28 non-rigid airship, and biplanes are represented by a 1930 Gee Bee Model A, a 1930 Laird LC-DW 300 Solution, and a 1933 Viking "Kitty Hawk" Model B-8.

Two historically significant, early-piston airliners are also viewable.

The first of these, the Lockheed 10A Electra, is a twin-engined, low-wing, ten-passenger, tail-wheeled design which was the manufacturer's first all-metal airframe and provided the foundation for the larger L-14 and L- 18 Lodestar. The museum's example, bearing serial number 1052, had first been delivered to the US Navy in 1936 for use as a staff transport.

The second, an equally twin-engined, tail-wheeled aircraft, is the Douglas DC-3, the most massively produced, multiple-role, military and civilian design, which for the first time enabled operators to generate a profit solely with the transport of passengers and thus revolutionized the airline industry. Dubbed "one of the four most important weapons of World War II" by General Eisenhower, it still plies the skies more than three-quarters of a century after it first took to them.

The museum's DC-3, with more than 53,400 airborne hours in its logbook, served in several capacities, initially in a military role as a C-47 transport and then a commercial one with Eastern Airlines, Purdue University, and a number of smaller carriers .

Center- and showpiece of the Civil Aviation Hangar, however, is both the largest airframe in it and the only surviving example of the Connecticut-designed and -constructed Sikorsky VS-44A Excambrian. One of three completed in 1942 for American Export Airlines' nonstop transatlantic routes, the high-wing, quad-engined, long-range, flying boat-hulled airliner, with a 79.25-foot length, 124-foot wingspan, and 57,500-pound gross weight, was procured for war operations, transporting priority passengers and cargo under Army and Navy contracts before serving with several charter airlines. Extensive damage resulted in its 1968 service withdrawal.

Barged from the Gulf of Mexico to Bridgeport, it was subjected to an extensive restoration by the team of Sikorsky employees who had been instrumental in its original construction.

Today, the aircraft, draped in its original American Export Airlines livery, bristles with a first factory rollout look.

Another, and virtually only, centerpiece-in this case, in the 58th Bomb Wing Memorial Hangar-is the Boeing B-29 Superfortress, the hangar itself named after the wing which had been instrumental in World War II Japanese defeat. The silver, sleek, 135,000-pound, quad-engined, 3,250-mile bomber stretches 99 feet in length and sports a 141.25-foot wingspan, and carries 11 crew members. Dropping the atom bomb over Japan, it closed the final curtain on the Pacific Theater.

Poised outside, as if awaiting passengers, is a Sud-Aviation SE.210 Caravelle, the world's first short-range, pure-jet airliner. Featuring the nose section originally designed for the de Havilland Comet; modestly-swept, low wings; triangular-shaped passenger windows; two aft-mounted, Rolls Royce Avon engines; and a cross-of-Loraine tail, the sleek aircraft served as the basis of most subsequent twin-jet configurations, such as the British Aircraft Corporation BAC-111, the McDonnell-Douglas DC-9, and the Fokker F.28 Fellowship. Two hundred eighty Caravelles of all versions had been built.

Operated by United Airlines, Sterling Airways of Denmark, and small package carrier Airborne Express, it found its way to the museum after the latter carrier had donated it.

Aside from the aircraft, the New England Air Museum features several themed exhibits, some of which showcase Connecticut's aviation contributions, including "History of Sikorsky Aircraft," "Lafayette Escadrille," "AVG Flying Tigers" "Tuskegree Airmen," and "History of Pratt and Whitney. " There is also an Aviation Pioneer's Theater.

Open-cockpit days, computer flight simulators, audio tours, speakers, special events, workshops, educational programs, an aviation research library, and a sizable Wings 'n' Things gift shop round out its offerings.

Sikorsky Memorial Airport

Tracing its origins to the grass-covered Avon Field racetrack, which had been been conducive to early aircraft experimentation and had hosted the country first air show in 1911, Sikorsky Memorial Airport, a publicly-owned facility in Stratford, later became known as "Mollison Field" "after the 1933 crash-landing there by Captain Jim Mollison during his transatlantic attempt.

Despite its location, it had been redesignated "Bridgeport Municipal Airport" four years later when the city of Bridgeport itself had purchased it.

Because of Connecticut's prevalence of aircraft and engine manufacturers, it had been considered part of the "Arsenal of Democracy" during World War II, and was subsequently renamed "Igor I. Sikorsky Memorial Airport" in 1972 in honor of the man who had transformed the city ​​into the birthplace of the helicopter and whose factory had been largely responsible for its expansion.

Today, its facilities include a passenger terminal with airline check-in counters, three gates, a restaurant, and car rental desks; a general aviation terminal; private hangars; and two runways – 4,677-foot Runway 6/24 and 4,761-foot Runway 11/29. There is also a 40- by 40-foot helipad.

Progressive service discontinuation by three regional carriers, including Continental Connection in 1994, Delta Connection in 1997, and US Airways Express in 1999, had occurred because existing runway lengths prohibited larger, more profitable aircraft operations, although scheduled, commercial, rotary-wing service had been reinstated after a seven-year interval by US Helicopter with its return-to-roots helicopter operations to New York's Downtown Heliport. Wiggins Airways provides FedEx Feeder cargo and small package service to the field.

During the 12-month period ending on February 28, 2007, Sikorsky Memorial Airport recorded 77,617 aircraft operations and had 241-based aircraft, of which 72 percent were single-engine, 11 percent were multi-engine, 15 percent were turbine, and two percent were rotary wing.

Conclusion

Connecticut's rich rotary- and fixed-wing aircraft, engine, and propeller contributions to aviation, whose seeds were planted by some of the most famous names, merit a tribute-paying visit to its many related sights.

Running on Fumes – "Those Fuel Gauges Always Read a Little Low"

Ever heard this one from another pilot, or possibly even your instructor? Maybe they also told you there's a margin of error built in, or "that's just an engineering number", or perhaps your check's in the mail? It makes me wonder how many pilots are traversing the sky right now feeling, as the industry lingo has it, 'fat, dumb and happy' looking at gauges that are telling them the absolute rock bottom truth, while they're busy ignoring what they 're seeing?

Here's my own experience with this conundrum of what I'll refer to as gauge-denial. They say confession is good for the soul. Well, every pilot ought to be forced, on a regular basis, to confess his or her sins, the transgressions they've made in aviation during the past year, and then submit them anonymously for the benefit of all. The following is from my distant past, when I'd been a helicopter pilot for a very short time, but should have known better anyway. It involved a long cross country flight, over a lot of real estate, with no access to a fuel truck, and a fellow pilot who was in deep denial with me.

We'd taken off in our UH-1 Huey from home base around nine am with a couple of brass types aboard, a crewchief, and a full bag of gas. In the UH-1H, a full load of jet fuel will keep the blades turning and Mister Engine happy for about two hours and thirty minutes, give or take. After that time things get very quiet. The 'H' model Huey's fuel tank held 209 gallons. That figure will be important to remember later on.

Takeoff and cruise to our destination were uneventful. It was a glorious fall day, and by ten o'clock we were circling our landing spot near the Ohio River. We landed, the generals departed for their appointed rounds, and we shut the Lycoming T53 turbine off to await their return. The flight down had been comfortably quick; a tailwind had assisted our passage, and the Huey – not known for either speed or aerodynamic excellence – had achieved a remarkable 115 knots across the ground. In Vietnam, where I'd flown as recently as one year prior to this incident, that speed was more than sufficient to take me from one end of our area of ​​operations to the other. Indeed, in the war zone, our standard cruise speed in the Huey was 80 knots, or slow enough that the heavily loaded Cobra gunships could keep up with us until they'd unloaded ordnance. This factor may have contributed to my complacency about the fuel situation that day. Another factor, about which the aviation god was notably indifferent, was that I'd survived the war, so I may have been feeling a bit bulletproof. When we landed, the gauge read 740 pounds, or enough for about one hour and fifteen minutes of cruise flight.

The generals returned at eleven o'clock and boarded my Huey. Soon the turbine whined, the blades spun up, and we took off into a moderate headwind, bound for home.

Leveling at 3,000 feet, and getting the cockpit cleaned up, we settled in for what I expected to be a trip north that may be a tad longer than the one south, but not much. At that point in my career I'd not heard the old expression about never making up with tailwind what you lose in headwind, so I had no idea the reverse was equally true. A couple of rough calculations on my trusty whiz wheel, and I began to see the harsh wisdom of that statement. Checking a second, then a third time, I spun the wheel on the E6B device, rechecked the settings, blinked a time or two, and shook my head. According to Mister Flight Computer, our ground speed was a glacial 87 knots. In Vietnam that would have been no cause for concern; Over there I'd never flown more than forty miles in any direction or I would have been greeted quite rudely. But this was friendly Ohio, where forty miles was only halfway home. I looked at the fuel gauge: 500 pounds, or enough for about 45 minutes of flight with no reserve. One more look at the map, and my concern mounted a bit more: our course line to home base was exactly 80 nautical miles. Given our ground speed, we had another 50 minutes to fly. This was not rocket surgery; we did not have enough fuel to get home.

Unless, as a lot of pilots still believe with varying degrees of acceptance, 'those gauges always read a little low', in which case we might squeak by.

As new to the flying game as I was, and as prepared to assume that last adage, as interested in an uneventful flight, and fully vested in getting the generals back to their very important meeting, I opted to press on. The rest is ascribed to experience – how it is gained, and at what expense, if we're lucky.

Eighteen miles from home, the 20 minute fuel low warning light flashed on, its brilliant glow filling up the caution panel like the tilt light on a pinball machine. Great, I thought, reaching for the flight computer. To my consternation, our ground speed had actually decreased a bit, further increasing my store of aviation experience, by teaching me that headwinds always increase as fuel level decreases.

Yet one more spin of the flight computer revealed an ETE of 21 minutes, give or take. By then the warning light had been casting its ardent yellow glow in my cockpit for three minutes. I could have fried an egg in my armpit. Despite the cool fall day, sweat sneaked from under my helmet, and trickled down my back. I hoped the generals and my crewchief did not notice my discomfort; this was going to be awfully damned close.

Here's the upshot of the tale. We landed on the ramp at home base with the fuel gauge on its absolute zero setting. The 20 minute, low fuel warning light had been alight for 23 minutes. With utter relief, we twisted the throttle off, and the blades wound down. I couldn't state with any degree of precision if the engine had stopped due to my input, or if we'd just flat run out of gas. Watching the fuel truck drive up and stop, I knew the topping off to follow would be very interesting indeed.

The blades stopped, my crewchief tied them down, and the fueler began his ritual. The fuel nozzle slipped into its port, and jet fuel began splashing into the tank, displacing what fumes were left there. I watched the truck's fuel delivery meter race on, clicking along through fifty, one hundred, one-hundred-fifty gallons. As it passed through 190 gallons and never slowed, I knew we'd come damned close to fuel exhaustion. Finally, at 201 gallons the automatic shutoff snapped, and the tank was full. I'd landed the Huey with 8 gallons left in the tank, about enough for two or three minutes of flight. That figure is misleading, however. Could I have hovered along another two or three minutes? No, and here's why: according to the operator's manual, the UH-1 fuel tank has about five gallons of unusable fuel. Thirty seconds or so would have made the difference that day between a landing and an inflight flameout.

I learned a lot on that mission. To plan better; to find fuel somewhere – even a remote spot – to ignore a general's determinant in favor of aviation safety; and to stop listening to those old, tired aviation maxims that give comfort when what we really need is fuel – and a dose of common sense.

Does the gauge 'always read a little low'? It did that day, lucky for me. But the unusable fuel factor could have done me in, regardless. So next time you hear of a margin of error, or a built in engineering factor with the aircraft, take it from me. The best way to stay safe, and to retire, as I did, with little fanfare, and your record intact, is this: build in a little margin of error the other direction. Remember, those fuel gauges always read a little high.

What to Do When Facing OVI Charges

What used to be known as DUI charges in the state of Ohio is now referred to as an OVI, or operating a vehicle impaired. What many people do not know about OVI / DUI charges is that the law is not limited to individuals driving a traditional vehicle, like a car or truck. An officer can charge you with drunk driving if you are driving a golf cart, ATV, lawnmower or even riding a bicycle.

If you think you can avoid an OVI / DUI arrest by sleeping it off in the car before heading home, you would be wrong. An officer can pursue OVI / DUI charges against any individual who is "in control" of the vehicle. Under Ohio law, if you are in the driver's seat and have the keys in your position, you are in control of that vehicle and can face an OVI / DUI arrest.

Be polite, but don't incriminate yourself
Whether you were pulled over for speeding or weaving out of your lane, a police officer is trained to identify evidence of intoxication from the moment they approach your vehicle. After finding a safe place to pull over, remain in your car with your hands on the steering wheel. Be polite and do not lie to the officer, however, you can decline to answer incriminating questions.

Any observation that an officer makes, slurred speech, alcohol or drugs that are visible in the vehicle, lack of coordination, etc., will be used as probable cause to justify the officer making an arrest for operating a vehicle impaired. Don't add to that evidence by answering "how much have you had to drink" with a response of "5 beers and 3 shots of tequila." You have the right not to answer, and your OVI / DUI attorney will thank you.

After an arrest, it is your attorney's job to review any evidence the officer collected to determine if the officer was justified in administering a field sobriety test and / or arresting you. Charges can be thrown out if this evidence does not hold up, but not if you incriminate yourself with your responses.

Breathalyzers and chemical tests
When you are detained for suspicion of drunk driving, the officer may ask you to submit to a breathalyzer or request a urine or blood test to determine if you are under the influence of drugs or alcohol. You do have right to refuse, however you will face an OVI / DUI arrest and will automatically lose your license for a minimum of one year. This is outlined in Ohio's implied consent law. Nevertheless, it is advantageous if you refuse to blow, which will make it harder for the officer to compile evidence against you.

Your rights after an arrest
Ohio law finds a driver to be "under the influence" if there is a blood alcohol level of.08 or higher. An OVI charge is not limited to alcohol, however. The use of drugs, legal or otherwise, that impair your ability to operate a vehicle can lead to an OVI charge.

Your OVI / DUI defense begins as soon as you are pulled over. When you are arrested, you have the right to request an OVI / DUI lawyer who can advise you of your options. In situations like this, you want an OVI / DUI lawyer who is not only experienced in dealing with Ohio laws, but is also available 24/7.

The Serrano Show: An Interview With Dr Eric Serrano

Dr. Eric Serrano is the ace sought out by elite athletes around the world for help with the most difficult of problems. He spends a large part of his time promoting the health of his everyday family practice patients in Pickerington, a suburb of Columbus Ohio. Amongst the thousands of patients are elite athletes from around the globe who will travel to the ends of the earth to consult with Dr. Serrano.

A wide array of athletes from the NFL, NHL, MLB in addition to countless elite amateurs make up Eric’s elite client list of athletes. His cohesive expertise comes from years of practicing medicine and his career as a record-breaking powerlifter. As an athlete and family man, Eric understands the needs of his clients and pushes himself to stay on the cutting edge of training, supplementation, nutrition, injury rehabilitation and performance enhancement.

Dr. Serrano is a graduate of Kansas State University and earned his medical degree at Kansas University. Currently, he is a professor of family practice medicine at the Ohio State University. One will never have an idea of what extreme demand exists for Dr. Serrano’s services, which is obvious by viewing a message log full of inquiries from elite athletes, strength coaches and related practitioners around the world. He is truly the expert of experts, only the elite come to for guidance and information.

———————————————————

JP: Let’s start with protein. How much does one need if they are training heavy to put on strength and size?

Dr. S: That’s an easy answer. If you are a male, 1 – 1.5 grams per pound. The maximum would be 2 grams per pound if you are training extremely heavy plus doing aerobic exercise. If you are a female. 0.8 grams per pound is sufficient. These recommendations are for people who are not taking anabolic steroids of course.

JP: How about for fat reduction?

Dr. S: It is more important to manipulate fat and carbohydrate levels for body fat reduction than overall caloric intake. In fact, some people do not consume enough calories for true fat loss to occur. The above-mentioned protein ratios apply here as well.

JP: You always hear the casein vs. whey debate and I know that you’ve actually separated proteins for their predominant anabolic or anti-catabolic properties. Can you briefly explain this? What are the best protein powders on the market?

Dr. S: First of all, I do not believe that whey isolates are the best. Let me explain why. When we simplify things, we tend to destroy other things along the way. For example, going from milk to whey destroys many of the growth-support proteins. Taking this a step further, processing whey alters the alpha-lactalbumin to beta-lactoglobulin ratio so that the latter is in greater concentration in the end product. Well, guess what, beta-lactoglobulin is the most allergenic protein of them all!

To answer the casein vs. whey question, it depends on the process. There’s calcium, potassium and sodium caseinate, but I prefer to use milk protein isolate that has all the proteins together or micellar casein which seems to be a superior source. For whey, I favor whey concentrate which is cheap, pure and better quite frankly. There’s a supplement called ImmunoPro which is not cheap, but has a more favorable alpha-lactalbumin to beta-lactoglobulin ratio and is one of the best products on the market.

To gain size, you want proteins with both anabolic and anti-catabolic properties. Anti-catabolic proteins are rapidly absorbed and will prevent breakdown of muscle (eg. free-form and branched-chain amino acids which get in the system quick, raise insulin which prevents the muscle from breaking down) while anabolic proteins will help build muscle (eg. red meat).

As far as I’m concerned, the best proteins on the market are Beverly International Ultra Size (which also has beef in it), Biotest Low-Carb GROW!, Champion Nutrition Met Max, ImmunoPro as I already mentioned, MD+ Myosin, and a meal replacement powder called Micellean Bioactive Superfood from VPX which tastes pretty good too.

One more thing regarding protein, you can snack on soy beans if you wish, but no time in a male’s life should they consume a soy protein isolate!

JP: Many people are looking for ways to naturally increase testosterone levels. Any suggestions?

Dr. S: Believe it or not, there are some studies (on resistance trained athletes) that show that eating too much protein can actually decrease testosterone levels especially when fat and carb levels are low. There is a direct correlation between dietary (saturated and monounsaturated) fat and testosterone – in general, the higher the fat intake, the higher the T levels. Olive oil, cheese, are red meat are excellent sources. Many athletes stick to only lean cuts of meat – it’s these guys in particular that can attain an erection but have a hard time keeping it (pardon the pun!) Also, a study just came out recently showing that tribulus specifically from Bulgaria (not Japan, China or India) and from the fruit (not the stem or the roots) elevated LH and testosterone levels.

JP: How can you naturally control dreaded cortisol levels?

Dr. S: Well, every time you eat, you lower cortisol levels – raising insulin lowers cortisol – that’s a natural response. So, the first method would be to eat frequent small meals. There are certain supplements that will lower cortisol levels naturally: rhodiola rosea (600 mg), panax ginseng (2 studies now show that it decreases cortisol levels – you need a minimum of 1 gram), PS (400-800 mg). Fats are also very important particularly monounsaturated fats, but no matter who you are and what you do, the best way to decrease cortisol levels is sleeping at least 8 hours a night! There’s a book called Lights Out: Sleep, Sugar, and Survival by T.S. Wiley & Bent Formby that illustrates this. The process involves circadian rhythms of hormones and timing of melatonin levels. There were an incredible number of studies performed on this subject, but on average 8 hours of sleep (optimal being 9) is necessary every night. The key is not watching tv late at night. One study I recall involved placing people in a dark room and shining a little light bulb behind the knee for 20 minutes to see what would happen. The subjects’ sleeping pattern changed even though they were in a dark room, and in only 2 weeks, the melatonin levels of all the subjects was completely altered so you know that the skin has some type of sensitivity to light. That’s why in the summer, we stay up longer because there is more light and in the winter, the opposite occurs. Since there’s less light, we feel more tired, stressed and depressed and we want to go to bed earlier. It makes sense!

JP: How would you go about regenerating the adrenals after say a lengthy period of stimulant abuse?

Dr. S: If you use stimulants or thermogenics for more than 12 weeks, you kill the adrenal glands. It takes about 8 weeks to recover. To regenerate them, you need to take adrenal gland supporters (eg. Standard Process Drenamin, Metagenics Adrenogen), vitamin C (at least 3 grams a day), DHEA, and fish oil. In fact, the adrenal glands are 60% fat – polyunsaturated fats are important here (they will also decrease cortisol levels). Again, sleep is crucial.

JP: Or how would you cleanse the liver after a steroid cycle which included orals?

Dr. S: Okay, make sure that you have some liver tests (i.e. blood work) done by your physician to obtain a baseline. This is one of the few times that I agree to a medium protein diet. In addition, it is important that you do not smoke, drink (alcohol), take Tylenol, birth control pills or other drugs during this time. To clean the liver, you need the right foods. Eggs are useful in this situation – the lecithin found in eggs will help. As far as supplements are concerned, liver tablets (Beverly International Ultra-40), milk thistle, glutathione, and glutamine also helps the liver. Finally, 25-50 grams of vitamin C taken intravenously has been shown to regenerate the liver. I use this approach in my office occasionally when I have a patient with hepatitis A, B or C and the results are incredible!

JP: Okay, let’s give the reader an example of how you diagnose things. We’ll take the thyroid for example. You’ve mentioned that you check TSH, T4, T3, reverse T3 and triglycerides as well as ask questions about hair loss, constipation, weakness, palpitations, and usage of carbs and caffeine. What exactly do you look for and how do you go about correcting some of these anomalies? How about boosting the thyroid gland, what would you suggest?

Dr. S: Yes, the biggest problem I’ve seen in this area is that some labs return normal and you assume everything is fine so you do nothing – you must listen to the patient! If the thyroid is borderline, meaning that TSH is between 2.5 and 3.0, you can use adrenal supplementation for 4 weeks. If after 4 weeks you do not see results, then I would recommend thyroid medication. Armour thyroid is a natural thyroid that contains both T3 and T4. If you have someone with hyperthyroidism, then putting them on a thyroid medication may actually help to lower their levels.

JP: You’re not a fan of milk, but you don’t mind other dairy products like cottage cheese or even whipping cream. Why is this? Also, what type of cottage cheese do you recommend (i.e. organic, low or high fat, does it matter?) and when?

Dr. S: Let’s clear up the first part: it’s not that I’m not a fan of milk, I’m not a fan of pasteurizing and homogenizing milk! Heating at high temperatures for a short period of time is okay, I guess, but filtering the fat through small filters completely changes the composition of milk. Raw milk is great but it is difficult to obtain (unless, of course, you get it straight from the breast!) Goat milk is a better choice than cow milk because it has more fat and less carbohydrates, and it tends to be a lot friendlier for people with milk allergies because the protein sources are different. Cottage cheese is one cheese that will actually elevate sugar and insulin levels. I would recommend organic, high fat (the highest you could find) cottage cheese.

JP: Explain why you believe this whole concept of acidity is faulty.

Dr. S: I assume that you are talking about the acidity of the blood. This being the case, the human system is so keen on controlling the pH of the blood that any change affects the body. For that reason, the body will try to fight acidity or even alkalization. I don’t believe too much on this concept. I do agree, however, that certain foods will affect the pH of the blood for a short period of time, but it’s nothing to worry about. The most common change in pH is secondary to a lack of oxygen. If this happens and you go too acidic, then you’re in deep shit!

I have a problem with those that claim that eating too much meat will make you too acidic. Let’s go back to prehistoric times when there was no agriculture so there were no grains. Basically, we had to hunt to eat. We ate lots of meat and got our fiber from eating intestines not grains. In the summer, we had plenty of fruit to feed on (like cherries, strawberries, etc.) but what happened when winter came? It’s gone! The only thing left is food that is walking around so we had to follow this food that would migrate south. Now, we would stumble across other sources, like bananas for instance, which would influence nutrient intake. Our bodies, therefore, were never deficient because we would transition between seasons – this is one of the reasons why I believe in a food rotation diet. Anyhow, to get back to my original point, if you’re going to tell me that eating meat is going to make me acidic than there were a lot of acidic people millions of years ago and we would not have survived!

JP: What are your views on food combining?

Dr. S: The body is prepared to digest food, plain and simple. It does not have a separate blueprint for each individual food. You think your body automatically recognizes that you’re eating a banana or a strawberry? No, it doesn’t work that way. It is true, though, that combining certain foods can affect you hormonally. For instance, eating carbohydrates with protein will elevate insulin levels and facilitate the transport of amino acids into the muscle cell which is beneficial post-workout. However, people are misguided if they feel that food combining will aid digestion. If you have a healthy digestive system than food combining is unnecessary. If this is not the case, then fix it!

JP: Can you clear up the whole egg issue. For one, some people don’t believe that we digest eggs all that well and that they are a common food allergy; whereas, others feel that since they are so similar to human tissue, they are easy to digest. Then there’s the issue of cooking them or not. On one side of the coin is Dr. Mercola who believes that cooking destroys some beneficial enzymes and nutrients and that the risk of salmonella poisoning is actually quite rare. Then there’s John Berardi who says that cooking the eggs will increase their absorption. And finally, the whole egg and cholesterol issue.

Dr. S: Eggs are one of the most allergenic foods you could eat. Is there a difference between boiling, scrambling, or eating raw eggs? Yes. The more you cook eggs, the greater the free form amino acids. Eating raw eggs provides intact proteins which is more allergenic. Boiling is a step in the right direction, but scramble your eggs as much as possible. Mercola is right in that cooking will destroy some enzymes, but it’s a trade-off where I prefer less allergies over more enzymes. I definitely agree with Berardi that cooking eggs will increase their absorption.

Cholesterol and eggs is not an issue at all. I can’t believe that people still suggest this to be true! Almost every hormone you have is cholesterol-based except for protein-based hormones like insulin and growth hormone. The lower your cholesterol levels after the age of 55, the higher the chance of cancer!

JP: You impressed me with your knowledge of kinesiology and your diagnostic skills. What are some of the common weight training injuries that you see in your practice?

Dr. S: The most common weight training injuries that I see are imbalances between the frontal superficial line versus the back superficial line. Visit http://www.anatomytrains.com for more information. Hamstrings are notorious for being tight. Also, I notice many people lacking the supporting muscles. For instance, it’s common to see weak lats with strong upper traps pulling the shoulder girdle closer to the clavicle which causes impingement of the rotator cuff. Also, stress-related injuries which affects posture results in weaker muscles that are more prone to injury.

JP: While we’re talking about injuries, any tips or supplements that will speed up healing?

Dr. S: There are many supplements that will speed up healing. Research has shown that digestive enzymes will help injuries. They act as anti-inflammatories and will even help reduce cancer. Another big one, albeit through a separate mechanism, is glucosamine and chondroitin. These are more applicable to the joint (as is collagen); whereas, enzymes (specifically bromelain) will act on the tendons. Fats are also important. Fish oils and GLA have been shown to have a potent anti-inflammatory effect. Other supplements include Vitamins C (2 grams) and E (800 IU’s), MSM, reishi mushroom, cat’s claw, tumeric, feverfew but the dosage used will depend on the injury.

JP: You’ve mentioned some impressive numbers with regards to your own training and I saw you perform multiple repetitions of towel chin-ups with ease. Do you have any strength tips that you would like to share?

Dr. S: Wow, I never knew you were so impressed with me, JP! First of all, the most common mistake I see is overtraining. If you’re over 35 years old and do more than 10-12 sets per body part, you are overtraining! If you do legs more than twice a week (depending on your state), you’re overtraining! In a strength phase, work your legs only once a week and your total workouts should not exceed 3 times a week especially if you are performing any aerobics. Always keep in mind the stress factors of your client, such as work, rest, nutrition, family, etc. I have research that clearly demonstrates training more than 3 days a week elevates cortisol levels for up to 4 days. This is important because elevated cortisol levels will not help you build muscle! You want to have an acute destroying effect on the muscles and then stop it – allow them to recover and build. One of the best ways to stop this so-called destruction is to use BCAA’s. BCAA’s lower cortisol levels. I’ve been saying it for years to always ingest BCAA’s pre-workout.

Another thing, you’re only as strong as your weakest link. So always work on your weak muscles. One way to figure this out is to train the body unilaterally at first to see what is lagging behind. Once you know, spend more time on that particular side. Also, remember that your grip dictates your strength – if your grip is weak, you won’t be able to bench as much. The most common weakness I’ve seen are hamstrings while the glutes get too strong. Usually, both the lower and upper back tend to be weak leading to injury.

JP: I learned from you that limited range calf raises hit the medial head of the gastrocnemius. Any other little secrets?

Dr. S: If I tell you then they won’t be secrets any more, but I’ll share one with you anyway. A common injury I see involves the origin of the biceps (long head) due to lat pulldowns. Most people tend to train their biceps solely with elbow flexion, but the biceps function as both elbow and shoulder flexors. Usually, biceps injuries occur at the shoulder. To properly train them, you should go from a stable to unstable, prestretched to shortened position. Let me explain what that means. Anytime you rehab someone, you should start from a stable position and work around the joint that is hurting. So, if the origin of the biceps is painful, you can work the distal end in a stable position by performing elbow flexion without contracting the origin at the shoulder. This way the muscle does not weaken and heals faster due to increased blood flow, although sometimes it is necessary to just rest. Sit on an incline bench and perform an incline curl as normal (involving only elbow flexion.) This is considered a prestretched position which helps the fascia heal. Performing incline curls on a Swiss ball will actually provide a more stable environment since you can rest your triceps on the ball. Move to a contracted position (i.e. preacher curl) after a few days or even a week when there is no more pain. Then, progress to more unstable positions.

JP: Can you discuss your fruit hierarchy? A little while ago, you faxed me a flowchart that showed the end metabolic pathway of fructose. Although known for their high antioxidant and fiber content, why is that fruit consumption can hamper fat loss? And can you explain why it’s important to eat fruits in season?

Dr. S: Don’t get me wrong, I don’t think fruits are bad. It’s the amount of fructose in the diet that we must be concerned of. Fructose (specifically high fructose corn syrup) is the #1 sweetener used. It’s a very metabolic, pro-oxidative pathway that is used as a glycosylated carbohydrate because the body does not like to do anything with it – you have to spend a lot of energy to change it to fat or glucose/glycogen so the body converts it instead to glycosylated proteins. Health-wise, this is not desirable. Fruits will make you fat not because they are bad for you, but primarily for the reason that people eat fruits that are “easy”, i.e. grapes – just put a bunch in your mouth, or bananas – peel one and keep walking (and they have about 3 or 4 a day!) Usually, people that eat fruit, do not eat proteins with them – another mistake. Fruits (fructose) are excellent post-workout because they are slowly metabolized, just make sure to add protein with it. Also, I do not believe in juicers because they remove the pulp/fiber from the fruit.

Why is it important to eat fruits in-season? Because God knows better! You should eat fruits that are in-season at that time. For instance, if it is cold outside, eat an apple; whereas, in the summer, strawberries, cherries, watermelon, etc. are in-season. Do not eat fruits that are not available. Bananas are not in-season during the winter, yet guess what the most commonly consumed fruit is at that time? That’s right, bananas!

JP: Can you reveal your new food pyramid? I’ve heard you discuss the inherent problems with the original model, and although the new proposed pyramid is a step in the right direction, it’s still off. Please explain.

Dr. S: Water should be at the bottom because you can die after 3 days without water. Tell me which food is more essential than that? Next would be proteins, preferably organic. Then comes vegetables, everything but white potatoes (sweet potatoes are fine) and corn (which is actually a grain). The next level involves fruits and nuts together – I consider these the same in value. Cheeses follow since most are not fermented. After this comes carbohydrates – the best sources are rice and oatmeal. My food pyramid would include a disclaimer that reads: “Carbohydrates are activity dependent!” If you are a couch potato, then you should not consume any carbohydrates – no grains or anything – and fruit only occasionally. However, if you are active, then by all means, consume those carbs.

JP: I know that you are a fan of fish oils and olive oil. Can you discuss the importance of these unsaturated fats? What makes your new Alpha Omega M3 better than most of the other EFA supplements?

Dr. S: As I discussed earlier with regards to olive oil, higher monounsaturated fat intake increases testosterone levels while decreasing cortisol. Fish oil can decrease the size and number of fat cells. The reason why my Alpha Omega M3 is one of the best EFA supplements on the market is because it is the only one with just a little bit of ALA yet contains high dosages of olive oil, fish oil, CLA and GLA in specific ratios. Another good one is MD+ EFA+, but it’s missing the olive oil (monounsaturated fat) which I feel is important.

JP: With all this talk about mercury toxicity, is it even safe to eat fish these days?

Dr. S: I had a guy who was eating 3 cans of tuna a day. He upped it to 5 and his mercury levels shot from 5.2 to 47.4 – that’s toxic! So, you have to be careful with some fish especially tuna, shark and dolphin. Salmon, herring and crab are okay.

JP: You’ve brought to light that the enzyme responsible to break down ALA into the active constituents DHA and EPA is deficient over the age of 35. Does that mean that it is relatively worthless to take flax seed oil over that age? And if below 35, how much flax seed oil should you take?

Dr. S: Flax seed oil is very high in polyunsaturated fats. These fats are unstable in the body because they can be easily oxidized. The enzyme responsible for breaking down ALA into DHA and EPA is lower (not deficient) after the age of 35. I just found out in a study conducted on pregnant women that taking as little as 3 teaspoons of flax seed oil removed all the EPA and DHA from the breast milk. Yet, when they changed to fish oil, EPA and DHA were present in the breast milk. That tells you something. The conversion rate is only 15% from ALA to EPA/DHA so it’s better to take fish oils. What are things that affect the enzyme: caffeine (people taking thermogenics have even lower activity of that enzyme), high insulin levels (from excessive carbohydrates), alcohol is the biggest factor, and low magnesium levels.

JP: This last question is a must ask. Any new hot supplements we should look out for?

Dr. S: I am conducting a study on Humanavor right now. I’m measuring insulin, lipid screen (good and bad cholesterol), DHEA and cortisol levels. I’ll let you know what happens. Some good, new ones include anti-cortisol, hyper-metabolic supplements meaning that instead of just concentrating on a thermogenic effect, you have something that lowers your cortisol so that insulin works better (or is diminished) similar to alpha-lipoic acid. Also, a combination of BCAA’s with taurine and arginine before workouts.

JP: Thank you, Dr. Serrano, for taking the time to conduct this interview. As always, talking with you is a serious learning experience. I know that you are extremely busy these days with over 8000 patients and that you are not taking on any new clients. How can the readers out there contact you if they are interested in a consultation?

Dr. S: Go to http://www.infinityfitness.com/consult/consults.html.

Did You Leave The Scene Of An Accident Even Though You Were Not At Fault?

State law in Ohio requires each person involved in a crash on a public road or parking lot to report the incident to police. The hit-and-run statute also imposes legal duties to remain on the scene, speak with investigators, alert emergency medical personnel when injuries occur, and, when possible, provide first aid to people who got hurt in the wreck.

The rules apply equally to the person who causes the crash and the victims. One of the implications of this is that victims of hit-and-run collisions can get charged with driving off after a wreck. Another is that failing to call in a crash can greatly complicate the insurance claims process, in large part because no official police report will get generated.

Do understand, however, that leaving a note on a parked car can protect an at-fault driver. Likewise, a person who comes back to a damaged car will not face problems for failing to report the incident immediately after it happened. When a hit-and-run involves an unoccupied vehicle, some leeway is allowed.

How a Victim Can Face Blame for a Hit and Run

Picture a four vehicle pile up at an intersection. A truck driver set off the chain reaction by failing to brake in time while approaching a red light. He slams into the back of a car, pushing it into the path of traffic crossing from a side street with a green light. If both the truck driver and the person in the car take off without checking on people in the other cars, without giving statements and insurance information to law enforcement officers, and without calling 911, both can be charged with the offense that Ohio courts call leaving the scene of an accident.

Problems With Hit-Skip Victim-Blaming

Even though the person driving the vehicle was a victim of the truck driver's negligence or recklessness, the person has to comply with the hit-and-run law in order to avoid possible criminal consequences. The victim might have panicked or just assumed that he or she did not need to stick around because the truck driver was clearly at fault. Police and the court would not be inclined to accept either excuse at face value, so hiring a hit-and-run defense lawyer would be a good idea for the driver.

Beyond the legal concern, remaining on the scene would spare the driver from coming under suspicion of causing any part of the wreck and inflicting any injuries. Simply getting accused of instigating a hit-and-run collision can make filing and collecting on insurance claims impossible. Insurers will work hard to deny claims from a driver they believe to be at fault.

Speaking with a lawyer who does hit-and-run defense can help in a situation like this. The attorney will be able to organize and present evidence to support the victim's right to make claims. The lawyer could also use evidence to explain why leaving the scene of the accident would be understandable and forgivable.